The building was constructed of stone and lime, and all the material was assembled nearby in the valley. There are several theories and legends about the origin of the architectural complex Tash-Rabat, but most likely it was built in the 15th century and served as a coaching inn for merchants. Along the nearby trade route caravans went from Chuy and Fergana valleys to Kashgar.
The height of Tash-Rabat building is of more than 20 m, and the inside is a labyrinth connecting 31 rooms. On the background of green meadows of the valley the caravanserai looks like a powerful and unapproachable fortress.